Nível Fluente › Friday The 13th

  • At the end of this lesson you'll be able to:

    • Talk about the superstition surrounding Friday the 13th
    • Understand the use of "while" and "whereas" to contrast clauses
    • Understand different uses of the verb "to gather"


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Dialog: "In numerology, the number twelve is considered the number of completeness, whereas the number thirteen was considered irregular, transgressing this completeness."

A linker is a word or combination of words that connect words, phrases or clauses in a sentence. In this lesson we're focusing on the linkers "whereas" and "while" to express contrast. These linkers can be placed either before or after the main clause.


  • Stephanie needs at least eight hours of sleep every night, whereas Liz needs only six.
  • Whereas it's summer in Brazil, it's winter in Canada.

Dialog: "In pagan Rome, Friday was execution day, while in other pre-Christian cultures it was a day of worship."


  • Dan works the night shift at the hospital, while Rob works the day shift.
  • While I thought I would do badly on the exam, I didn't think I was going to fail it.


Note that "whereas"  and "while" are interchangeable in the above sentences, cannot be used when the subordinate clause makes the main clause unexpected. In this case we use "while" or "although". They are generally placed before the main clause.

  • While/Although Rick has lived in Portugal for three years, he cannot speak Portuguese. (it's unexpected that he can't speak Portuguese because he lives in Portugal)
  • While/Although Serena loves the state of California, she doesn't want to live there. (it's unexpected that she doesn't want to live there because she loves it)


Sobre esta aula

Legend has it that if 13 people sit down to dine together, one will die within a year.  Legend also has it that you should never embark on a trip on a Friday or you will have misfortune. Who created these legends, and what happens when the 13th day of the month falls on a Friday? Well, never fear, Ashley and Josh are here to answer some of your doubts about the superstitious date, Friday the 13th.

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