Nível Fluente › Christmas...An Unpopular Holiday?

  • At the end of this lesson you'll be able to:

    • Understand how to use "as a result", "by contrast", and "in contrast" correctly
    • Understand different uses of the word "favor"


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Dialog: "
As a result, Christmas was not a holiday in early America."

A linker, or sentence connector, is a word or combination of words that connect words, phrases or clauses in a sentence.  In this lesson we're focusing on "as a result", "by contrast" and "in contrast". When we want to express reason or result we use "as a result". When we want to compare the differences between one thing or person to another we use "by contrast" or "in contrast". Although these two linkers mean the same thing, "in contrast" is followed by "with" or "to" and, and requires a noun after it.  Whereas "by contrast" is proceeded or followed by the subject of the sentence.


  • As a result of the strong rains, many homes on the hill are in danger of landslides.
  • The sound system wasn't working properly.  As a result, the band had to postpone the show.


  • Shakespeare's "Much Ado About Nothing" ends with a couple's enjoying their newfound love for each other. By contrast, his play "Macbeth" ends in a tragic death.
  • Helen has blond hair and blue eyes. By contrast, her brother has brown hair and brown eyes.


  • Cats are very independent animals, in contrast to dogs that are much needier of their owner's attention.
  • In contrast with San Diego, the weather in San Francisco is much colder and rainier.


Sobre esta aula

When thinking of the Christmas season, what emotion comes to mind? Ok, Ok, aside from stress! Joy! Let's face it, once the presents have been bought, the trips to relatives' houses planned, and the Christmas dinner has been cooked, there's nothing better than being with family...and opening presents, of course! But this wasn't the case in Early America. Christmas was so unpopular that it was even banned for some years! Check out this lesson and get the scoop on why.

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